Thursday, October 20, 2016

Expert talk demystifies ADHD

By Jonathan Wexler

If you think that ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is becoming more prevalent, you are not wrong. It is certainly being diagnosed more often, and affects up to 10 percent of children in our classrooms. 

ADHD is a psychiatric condition affecting a child's self-control, leading to impulsive behavior, trouble in school and with relationships, and with performing tasks in general. While ADHD also affects adults, it is mostly diagnosed in children and is often first noticed by teachers. 
Dr. Emmett Francoeur spoke at the Eleanor London
Côte Saint-Luc Public Library

ADHD also happens to be a specialty of recognized pediatrician Dr. Emmett Francoeur, developmental physician with the Montreal Children’s Hospital, who spoke on the subject to a crowd of mostly teachers and parents at the Eleanor London Côte Saint-Luc Public Library on September 14, 2016.

Dr. Francoeur, suffering from laryngitis, but in good spirits, started his presentation ADHD, TED talk style by making it clear that ADHD is a neurobiological condition and that "it is not the invention of teachers or parents who are at their wits end." In fact, Dr. Francoeur clarified that there are anatomical differences in the brains of ADHD sufferers that can be seen in MRI tests.

He explained that ADHD affects the executive functions of the brain. He listed a variety of technical terms for these, such as the "mental energy controller", "the processing control part", and "saliency determination", which boil down to the brain being able to understand, organize, and prioritize the information it takes in and act accordingly. "Someone with severe ADHD can walk into a classroom like it is their first time, even when it is November or December," said Dr. Francoeur. "Executive functions don't work efficiently for people with ADHD."

Dr. Francoeur emphasized that diagnosing a child with ADHD is not straightforward. "There has to be due diligence as to whether a child has ADHD," he said, adding that there are 2,000 faces of ADHD. Other conditions and medical reasons have to be ruled out. There is no substitute for, what he says, are "asking the questions".

These questions are actually the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in the psychiatric manual DSM-V, which describes three variants of the condition: the inattentive type, the hyperactive compulsive type, and the most common which combines symptoms of the first two.

Dr. Francoeur suggested various classroom accommodations, such as smaller classes, frequent recess periods, and flexibility of due dates for the ADHD student. His four-pronged approach to helping children with ADHD includes medication, parent training, interpersonal training for children, and study skills. 

Jonathan Wexler is a Montreal area writer with extensive experience in the technical communications field.

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